Production

Pre-Production: Directing & Producing

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Both the director and producer deal with similar areas in pre-production – such as casting and securing locations, as well as collaborating with the art department and director of photography, and breaking down the script – yet, the director takes a more creative approach to these tasks, while the producer is more involved in logistics.

The stages of pre-production are:
Development

  • Script development
  • Financing
Pre-production
  • Breaking down the script
  • Schedule
  • Budget
  • Assembling a crew
  • Finding a cast
  • Securing locations
  • Establishing a look for the film with the art department
  • Collaborating with the director of photography so this look will be carried into production
  • Carrying out rehearsals/table reads
  • (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxv-xxvii).
From these stages it can be seen that the most important elements which affect how the producer and director make decisions during pre-production are the screenplay, the schedule and, especially, the budget (Shorr, 2015).

Development – the script

Within the development phase of production the script for the project is acquired by the producer, either by the producer coming up with their own idea and finding a writer to write this as a script, the producer writing it themselves, or taking on an already written script (Rea & Irving, 2015:9).
The producer then oversees the progression of this script (Rea & Irving, 2015:9). However, the producer eventually recruits a director to the project, who then takes over observing and guiding the writer through the rewriting stage, so that the producer can focus on obtaining funding for the project (Rea & Irving, 2015:28).
This is also so that the director’s vision for the project can begin to take shape, making the collaboration between the existing writer and the director essential – due to this, “it is the producer’s job ultimately to see that the project is best served by this union” – since until this stage of development the writer provides vision for the film, yet, as the film gets closer to production, it is the director who is ultimately responsible for making decisions which affect the ‘vision’ of the film, such as those involving visual style, casting, crew, and locations, because the director is the creative head of the project  (Rea & Irving, 2015:28).
Yet, it is also possible for directors to write the screenplay for a project, yet in this case writer/directors should not include too many camera directions within the action blocks of the screenplay, since there are chances for the film to benefit from the input of the team that will collaborate on the film later, as they could have creative suggestions that differ from any camera directions written in the screenplay, which improve the film (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:76). Therefore, it is suggested that writer/directors should see their roles as separate, so that they treat the screenplay they wrote in the same way as if they were directing one written by another writer (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:76).
Overall, “the goal is to end up with the best script possible from your original idea”, since “no magic on the set will correct any unresolved story or structure problems” – these need to be solved during the writing which is why the guidance of the producer/director are important for the writer (Rea & Irving, 2015:9).

Breaking down the script

Once the script has finished the rewrite stage, it is then broken down by the producer and the director, the producer creating a script breakdown, and the director working on a shooting plan by creating documents such as the shot list – all in preparation to create a schedule, and from this, a budget (Rea & Irving, 2015:9).
A script breakdown is “a scene-by-scene list of all of the elements in your screenplay. An element is anything that you will need to get (buy, rent, borrow or manufacture) that will appear in your film” (Shorr, 2015). To do this, the producer goes through the script underlining key elements – such as cast, props, special effects, sound, wardrobe etc. – allocating a colour for each element  (Rea & Irving, 2015:51).

Fig. 1 Script breakdown sheet (2015)

These elements can then be written up onto breakdown sheets (see fig. 1), with a single breakdown sheet allocated to each single scene or sequence – this is an essential task for a producer to carry out in pre-production as it “requires that all the production elements that affect the schedule and the budget…be lifted from the script and placed in their respective categories”  (Rea & Irving, 2015:49).
However, the script breakdown is also affected by how the director plans to visualise the film, thus during this stage the director develops a shooting plan, creating a shot list, storyboards, overhead diagrams and any other documents which will help them work out if they wish to add any special effects, extras, or camera movements to the script which will affect both the budget and the schedule – thus this requires collaboration between the director and the producer to strike a balance between achieving the director’s vision and staying on budget (Rea & Irving, 2015:54).
The producer uses their script breakdown to inform the film’s schedule, which is planned by creating a stripboard (Rea & Irving, 2015:53). A stripboard uses colour coded strips to arrange scenes in shooting order – the type of strips used are:

  • Scene strip – one scene for each strip, the colour depending on whether the scene is set at day or night, and whether it is interior or exterior (see fig. 2) – who is the in the scene, where it will be shot, and the number of script pages it covers can be included if needed
  • Day break – indicates the end of a filming day – all scenes prior to this will be filmed in a single day, with the day break including how many scenes will be filmed that day and the date
  • Banner – indicates breaks for lunch or wardrobe changes and changes of location
  • (StudioBinder 2019).

Fig. 2 Colour code for scene strips – from StudioBinder (2019)

From the stripboard the producer is then able to create the schedule for the production, since scene strips and banners can be lined up with day strips to indicate how many shooting days will be needed – however, it is advised this be “determined by arranging the strips in the order that makes the most “production sense” – that is, that requires the least amount of time to shoot”, as budget needs to be taken into consideration (Rea & Irving, 2015:53).
Stripboards have largely been replaced by computer programs (Rea & Irving, 2015:53), however the method of organising scenes is the same as it would be using a physical board – as can be seen in fig.3 which shows an example of a digital stripboard.

Fig. 3 Example of digital stripboard – from StudioBinder (2019)

Yet, how a director wishes to cover a scene can also affect the production’s schedule, as the producer could assume that a two page scene in the script will not take long to shoot, but the director may plan to film this scene using complex camera movements which will increase the time it takes to film the scene, thus affecting the schedule, and, if specialist equipment is needed, also the budget – for this reason, the director should alert the producer to any scenes of this nature (Rea & Irving, 2015:78).
However, the director should also collaborate on the schedule with the producer as the director “sets the pace” of filming as the person who coordinates, and therefore motivates, the cast and crew – hence, it is necessary for the director to be aware of what they can film in one day when reviewing the schedule (Rea & Irving, 2015:78).

Budget

Once the script has been broken down and a schedule created, the producer begins working out a budget for the project, since the budget “defines the parameters of what can or cannot be achieved” (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvi).
Although the director is not involved in budgeting, on professional films the director is required to “sign off” on the budget to show that they acknowledge the amount of budget allocated to the film and will make it within this amount (Rea & Irving, 2015:81). This is because “the director must strategize to make the best film possible on the available money, and must balance interpretative aims (rehearsal schedule, visual design, coverage, and so on) against what is available” – thus the budget can have a large affect on the director’s shooting plan (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:318).
Budgets are separated into above the line costs (costs related to the script, cast, director, producer), below the line costs (anything needed for production – equipment, food, locations etc.), post-production costs (visual effects, music etc.), and any other expenses (insurance, festival entry fees etc.) (Shorr, 2015).
Within these groups ‘accounts’ for each expense are numbered – these accounts being how expenses are broken down so that the budget can be more effectively organised (not physical accounts) (Shorr, 2015). These accounts are then shown on the budget form, which has two parts – the top sheet which is the “budget at a glance” being one sheet showing the totals of each account (see fig. 4), and the detailed budget, which shows how much each expense within the accounts costs (for example, how much set dressing will cost within the art account), acting as a way to see how each total is being spent on individual elements (Rea & Irving, 2015:83).
Fig. 4 Budget top sheet (2015)

Yet, for this reason, a producer should fill in the detailed budget first so that totals can then be added and filled in on the top sheet (Rea & Irving, 2015:83).
Nonetheless, it is recommended that every production budget should have a contingency: a 10% buffer between what you think you’ll spend and the money that you have available” (Shorr, 2015). This is so that the production is prepared to deal with unforeseen circumstances, such as equipment breaking, bad weather, or reshooting (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:319).

Collaboration

The next step in the pre-production process for the producer and director is to assemble a crew – however, both must agree on the crew members hired, since the producer’s job is to arrange each crew member’s deal, affected by the budget, whilst picking the right crew is important for the director as, “the success of the project depends on their ability to collectively carry out the director’s vision of the script” (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvi).
Crew members are mainly needed for the production phase of the film – however, it is necessary for some of them to join the film in pre-production so that they have some “prep time”  to do any work which needs to be done in advance of filming (Rea & Irving, 2015:104). This is especially essential for the director of photography and art director/production designer, since their collaboration with the director “is the creative backbone of the project” (Rea & Irving, 2015:104).
The producer is responsible for hiring the crew members who will make up the art and camera departments, and then helping to guide and facilitate their plan for the film so it stays within budget – the art director and director of photography lead these departments, with the two departments working together to “support the visual plan of the director” – thus the producer supports these departments, and the director collaborates with them (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvii).
Both of these collaborations depend on what kind of ‘look’ the director is aiming for, which will originate from the script, as the writing will convey ideas of mood and tone, although one directors’ ideas about this will be different from another’s for the same script – the director then develops these ideas with the director of photography, and the art department will then work to make these happen in the film (Rea & Irving, 2015:155).
Production designer and art director are two separate roles who work closely, with the production designer responsible for planning the look of the film with the director and director of photography, and the art director responsible for bringing together all the elements needed to translate this planned look to the screen – yet, these roles can be one on productions with low budgets (Rea & Irving, 2015:111). It is possible for production designers to both develop a look for the film following on from the director’s ideas, or take their own ideas for a look to the director – both allowing for more possibilities and thus a better collaboration which could improve the film (Insdorf, 1984).
The first time the production designer meets with the director, it is recommended they discuss setting a visual tone, discussing the feel, rhythm and emotional color of the film” (Insdorf, 1984), since these act as the foundations for the development of the look.
Visual research can also act as a foundation – this involves watching other films which are similar to the project in genre, location, time period, or tone, as well as using other reference points such as magazines, paintings, documentary footage, objects, photographs of locations and any other images from which the director can create a “visual wall” (see fig. 5), allowing the film’s look to be developed as more images are added and rearranged to define the intended look (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:284-5).

Fig. 5 Example visual wall (2013)
This visual wall can help determine the film’s colour palette, and also give ideas for lighting, which affect the film’s mood (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:290)
For example, La La Land‘s (2016) bright colours give the film an overall optimistic mood (see fig. 6), whereas the cold, dark colours in Pan’s Labyrinth (2006) cause the film to be dark in tone with a feeling of dread (see fig. 7). However, each fits the story, characters, setting, and time period of the film.
Fig. 6 Bright colour palette in La La Land (2016)
Fig. 7 Cold colour palette in Pan’s Labyrinth (2006)
This palette is determined by the collaboration between the director, director of photography, and the art department, since it can be affected by not only those elements visible within the film’s mise-en-scène, but also what type of camera and lighting is used (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:289).
Wardrobe and makeup also have to be taken into consideration when determining the look of the film, as these tell the audience a lot about a character (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:291). These stem from the script, but can also be added by the production designer as the visual style of the film develops since the script may not include all the specifics of a character’s wardrobe and makeup – thus, it can be necessary for the production designer to add items to the script breakdown sheets as the visual style of the film is developed (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:292).
This requires collaboration between the production designer and costume designer, but also the cinematographer (Insdorf, 1984), since it is necessary to determine if the wardrobe and makeup elements intended for the film will show up well on camera – the director of photography, along with the director, can carry out camera tests to determine this (Rea & Irving, 2015:167).
This is because the director of photography’s role involves “the photographic look of the film, which includes designing the lighting, compositions and camera angles, and choosing the shooting format, lenses, exposures, and focus” (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:283).
Overall, the main aim of the collaboration between the director, director of photography, and the art director/production designer is to design the film’s world, since “each film projects the specifics of a way of life, and each design expresses a point of view on the enclosed world it presents” – the design of this world is affected by all of the film’s elements from locations to cast, to music and props (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:293). These are thus all considerations the director needs to think about when collaborating with the director photography and art department to create the look for the film.
Yet, all of this stems from character – this is why the production designer, when beginning to design the look for the film, uses the script to answer questions such as:
  • “What economic bracket are the characters in?
  • What educational level? 
  • Which ethnic background?
  • Geographical location? 
  • Is the character influenced by his surroundings or does he influence them?”
  • (Insdorf, 1984).
The director should also do this, and can discuss the ideas they develop from these with the director of photography and production designer to help begin to create a cohesive style for the film, and a believable world.

Working with a storyboard artist

Storyboards are another way for a director to convey their intentions to the production designer and cinematographer (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:294). A director can have storyboards created for the production in several different ways, either drawing their own and using these as their references during production, drawing rough storyboards with an artist drawing more detailed, finalised versions of these before production, collaborating directly with the artist to develop notes on shots and the positions of cameras with the artist using these notes to create the storyboards, or allowing the artist to visualise the script without the director (Begleiter, 2010:35).
The types of storyboards used in film and television are:
  • Editorial storyboards – these show the film as it will be edited together in post-production, their main aim to show the director’s vision by focusing on portraying the intended camera angles and shot sizes – they are distributed to the crew for reference during production, so, due to this, they are normally black and white (easier to photocopy and retain detail) – (see fig. 8), yet for some films these are rendered in colour (such as Raiders of the Lost Ark – see fig. 9) if the production is highly stylised and has the time and money (Begleiter, 2010:12).
  • Key frames – rather than whole sequences, these show specific shots with highly detailed drawings, often showing lighting and shadows (see fig. 10) – compared to editorial storyboards they intend to convey mood and style (Begleiter, 2010:14). They can be used if the production has very little time to help plan complicated shots and sequences such as those involving special or practical effects and lots of camera movement (Begleiter, 2010:23).
  • Production illustration – used by the production designer to show concepts for sets and locations to the director and producer – thus, the drawing is a wide shot, involving no characters (Begleiter, 2010:15). For example, Star Wars concept artist, Ralph McQuarrie drew a production illustration showing an idea of what the planet Alderaan would look like for A New Hope (1977) – (see fig. 11), which although not included in the film was repurposed for The Empire Strikes Back by George Lucas as Cloud City (Scoleri, 2014).
Fig. 8 Editorial storyboards from Salt (2019)
Fig. 9 Colour storyboards from Raiders of the Lost Ark (2019)
Fig. 10 Key frames from A New Hope (2019)
Fig. 11 Production illustration for concept of Alderaan from A New Hope (2014)
Whether the director and producer decide to involve one or several types of storyboard in their pre-production process depends on the needs of the film, and the time and money the production has.

Locations

The director, director of photography and production designer also recce locations together, sometimes along with the sound recordist if dialogue is to be recorded on the location (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:289).
This is because when reccing locations, a director must take into consideration:

  • The look of the location – whether or not this fits the plan made by the director and production designer, and whether set dressing would be required (it is suggested that practical locations normally do). The cinematographer should also think about lighting possibilities. An additional element the director could consider is whether “the location can contribute to the tone and theme of the film”
  • Logistics – safety, whether there is enough room to place cameras and lights as needed, enough electrical plugs for lights/chargers, space, if there are toilets and parking, and the distance members of the cast and crew would need to travel
  • Availability – whether the location can be used when the production needs to film, and if the location is available within budget
  • Sound – whether there is any noise which could get in the way of recording clean sound and if anything can be done to minimise this outside noise. It is also necessary to consider if the location could have too much of an echo for clean sound, and if the ambient sound of the location fits with the scene/world of the film
  • (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:289-90).
Yet, these considerations are ultimately about balance, since a director may like a location because it fits the look they intend for the film, but it may not be big enough to allow for cameras and lights (Rea & Irving, 2015:141).
For this reason, a director should be prepared to keep an open mind when looking at locations, especially since a location could surpass their expectations, with it also being possible for a director to decide to use an unexpected location and alter the script to allow this – the script may also need to be rewritten if it gets to the point where the director is unable to find a location suitable for that which is written in the script, and needs to work with what is available to them (Rea & Irving, 2015:141-3).
However, camera angles can make a difference to a location, since if the location needs set dressing but the budget for this is small, then the director can choose to film only specific parts of that location so that set dressing is only required in those parts of the location, or camera angles can be chosen to make a location look bigger or smaller depending on the film’s requirements – elements of separate locations can even be combined to make it seem as if they are the same location through editing, and sound can connect locations which are not close together but seem to be in the film – for this reason, when searching for locations it has been said that “finding everything in one place is convenient but not essential” (Rea & Irving, 2015:143).
Once the director has picked the locations the producer works to secure them (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvi). However, when securing the locations, the producer needs to convey to the owners/managers of the locations that the production team will respect the location – crews should follow the rule that they need to always “leave the location in as good a condition as when they found it (if not better)” (Rea & Irving, 2015:147). The producer also needs to  “communicate clearly why you want the location and for how much time” (Rea & Irving, 2015:149).
The producer should consider the budget and schedule of the production when securing locations, as well as the distance cast and crew members will need to travel since travel expenses will influence the budget (Rea & Irving, 2015:147). For this reason, the producer may need to advise the director of alternative or backup locations if the location the director wishes to use is too expensive for the film’s budget – but “should the director insist on a particularly expensive location, the two will have to strike a compromise” (Rea & Irving, 2015:147).
After the producer has secured the locations, the director sometimes holds a walk-though of the locations, along with the director of photography, production designer, first assistant director and sound recordist to see how cameras and lights will be placed, and so that the sound recordist can determine if there will be any problems recording sound – this allows the opportunity for these crew members to ask the director questions, acting as “a dry run of the production”  (Rea & Irving, 2015:146).

Casting – Auditions & rehearsal

Casting is one of the most important elements of any film, since the actors “allow the audience to enter the world of your drama by bringing to life the scripted characters” – if they are unable to do this effectively then the audience will not connect with the characters and thus not be invested in the story (Rea & Irving, 2015:119). Because of this, a director should select actors who they can not only work well with, but also who are interested in their character, and who are willing to commit to the project since they are eager to use and improve their acting skills (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:213).

Auditions

To find the right cast, the producer organises auditions (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvi). Producers can do this by sending out casting calls – these include basic information about the project, such as filming dates and locations, a synopsis of the film, expenses etc., as well as character breakdowns (also known as casting breakdowns), which is basically a short character description (Unitas, 2019). This should include the character’s age, traits, profession, and their relation to any other characters (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:215), as shown by the examples in fig. 12.

Fig. 12 Example character breakdowns (2015)


Auditions can be held in several different ways, the most common technique being to have each actor read “sides” – these are a whole scene or a segment of a scene which can be read by the actor during the audition to test how they fit the character 
(Rea & Irving, 2015:126). Yet, this can be known as a “cold reading”, since the actor reading only a portion of the script can mean they are unaware of how this fits into the rest of the script, thus, especially if the script isn’t long, it is more useful for the actors to read the whole script in advance of the audition so they are aware of the context of their sides (Rea & Irving, 2015:126).
An actor can also be asked to provide a monologue they can perform (it has been argued that along with sides this can more effectively show the actors’ performance capabilities), or to improvise as the character they are auditioning for (Rea & Irving, 2015:127).
When actors arrive to auditions they are sometimes required to fill out an audition form to give the producer and director an idea of their acting experience and interests which can help during the casting process (although some of this information can now be found on online casting platforms for some actors) – the form also has room for the director to make notes as the actor auditions (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:219) – (see fig. 13).

Fig. 13 Example audition form (2013)


Auditioning can be a nervous experience for some actors, thus it is the director’s job to help them feel more at ease when they enter the audition by greeting them warmly with a handshake and eye contact, as well as introducing them to the other people in the room, and showing them where the camera is if they plan to film the audition, which is not required (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:219), but is recommended, since “recording the casting sessions is an excellent way to review auditions”, as well as testing how an actor performs with a camera present (Rea & Irving, 2015:129).
During the audition, the director should first have the actor interpret the side(s) in their own way, without giving them direction, because this could uncover the possibility that an actor interprets a character in an original way which has not been considered before, and then if they like the actor’s performance, the director should give directions when they read the scene again – called “adjustments” – to see how the actor takes direction (Rea & Irving, 2015:127). If the director did not like the actor’s performance, it is advised that they have the actor answer some questions instead of reading the scene again, to see if one of their answers provides something which fits the character and allows the director to consider listening to them read the scene again (Rea & Irving, 2015:128).
Yet, casting also give the director the opportunity to hear the script read by actors for the first time, which can allow the script to be improved by the writer and director as “readings can expose fat that might be eliminated” (Rea & Irving, 2015:125).
Once the auditions are over, the director and producer then watch back the auditions or review notes, judging the performances on how well the actor fit the character, their acting skills, their confidence and energy, their ability to take directions and collaborate, and their work ethic/loyalty to and enthusiasm for the project (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:221).
During this process, the producer assists the director by managing the casting process and also “serving as a creative sounding board when the director requires an objective opinion” (Rea & Irving, 2015:120). Thus, as well as arranging auditions, the producer then plans rehearsals (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvi).
These are important for the collaboration between the director and cast, which is vital to the project because of how the director helps the actors shape their performances, since this collaboration begins during casting and develops during rehearsals (Rea & Irving, 2015:119).

Rehearsals

Rehearsals allow the director time to begin collaborating with the actors, and plan blocking (Rea & Irving, 2015:xxvi). However, it is also useful for the actors, since rehearsals allow them “time to fully enter the world of the script and its characters, whose relationships must become as authentic as those between the actors” – it has been said that all of these elements, such as blocking, the actors developing their roles and thus beginning to create a believable film world and experience for an audience, are coordinated through the director (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:245).
Rehearsals can be carried out in the following stages:

  • Table read (also known as first read-through) – the actors gather around a table and read their lines together for the first time – the director should have the actors read neutrally, so that the director can see how the script flows, how characters relate to one another, how the actors interpret the film’s theme and contexts, and where the script can be improved. The director or assistant director normally read the action (Rabiger & Hurbis-Cherrier, 2013:248).
  • Second read-through – the director and the actors begin rehearsing scenes in their scripted order. The director begins by not giving too much direction, allowing the actors to naturally discover their character’s movements and motivations. The director should carry a notebook so that they can write down any notes whilst watching rehearsals to refer back to later
  • Blocking & shooting rehearsals – the director then begins blocking the scenes with the actors, beginning to record these on camera once the actors have memorised their lines and the blocking (these are then shooting rehearsals). The director should always keep in mind the pace of each scene, and consequently the overall film, since this is determined during rehearsals, important to a project as, “if the actors peak emotionally too early or too late, the delicate fabric of story can be torn” (Rea & Irving, 2015:135-7).
However, the director has to work with the actors to find a balance between how much rehearsal is needed and how much needs to spontaneously unfold during filming, since, although it has been argued, “there is no such thing as rehearsing too much as long as you are exploring deeper layers of meaning within a scene”, actors’ performances need to still be ‘fresh’ during filming, so that they are natural and organic, rather than too stiff or stale from over-rehearsal (Rea & Irving, 2015:135).

List of illustrations

Figure 1. Rea, P. & Irving, D. (2015) Script breakdown sheet. [Diagram] In: Rea, P. & Irving, D. (2015) Producing and Directing the Short Film and Video. Oxon: Focal Press. p.50.
Figure 2. StudioBinder (2019) Colour code for scene strips – from StudioBinder. [Chart] At: https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/shooting-schedule-stripboard/ (Accessed on 1 January 2020).

Figure 3. StudioBinder (2019) Example of digital stripboard – from StudioBinder. [Chart] At: https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/shooting-schedule-stripboard/ (Accessed on 1 January 2020).

Figure 4. Rea, P. & Irving, D. (2015) Budget top sheet. [Diagram] In: Rea, P. & Irving, D. (2015) Producing and Directing the Short Film and Video. Oxon: Focal Press. p.84.

Figure 5. Rabiger, M. & Hurbis-Cherrier, M. (2013) Example visual wall. [Photograph] In: Rabiger, M. & Hurbis-Cherrier, M. (2013) Directing: Film Techniques and Aesthetics. (5th ed.) Oxon: Focal Press. p.285.

Figure 6. Bright colour palette in La La Land (2016) [Film still, DVD] In: La La Land. California: Summit Entertainment.

Figure 7. Cold colour palette in Pan’s Labyrinth (2006) [Film still, DVD] In: Pan’s Labyrinth. California: Warner Bros. Pictures.

Figure 8. Burgard, T. (2019) Editorial storyboards from Salt. [Illustrations] At: https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/storyboard-examples-film/#Drama-Movie-Storyboards (Accessed on 2 January 2020).

Figure 9. Verreaux, E. (2019) Colour storyboards from Raiders of the Lost Ark. [Illustrations] At: https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/storyboard-examples-film/#Science-Fiction-Movie-Storyboards (Accessed on 2 January 2020).

Figure 10. Lucas, G. (2019) Key frames from A New Hope. [Illustrations] At: https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/storyboard-examples-film/#Star-Wars (Accessed on 2 January 2020).

Figure 11. McQuarrie, R. (2014) Production illustration for concept of Alderaan from A New Hope. [Illustration] At: https://www.starwars.com/news/an-annotated-guide-to-the-star-wars-portfolio-by-ralph-mcquarrie (Accessed on 2 January 2020).

Figure 12. Rea, P. & Irving, D. (2015) Example character breakdowns. [Descriptions] In: Rea, P. & Irving, D. (2015) Producing and Directing the Short Film and Video. Oxon: Focal Press. p.121.

References

Begleiter, M. (2010) From Word to Image: Storyboarding and the Filmmaking Process. (2nd ed.) California: Michael Wiese Productions.

Insdorf, A. (1984) ‘JUST WHAT PRODUCTION DESIGNERS DO.’ In: The New York Times 9/9/84. At: https://www.nytimes.com/1984/09/09/arts/just-what-production-designers-do.html (Accessed on 2 January 2020).

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